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[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Applied Immunology” tab_id=”1457511312660-b746607c-614f”][vc_column_text]Introduction to Antigens: Somatic, Secreted and Surface antigens. Source, Nature and Solubility of Antigens. Extraction, Characterization, Purification and Quantification Procedures. Principles of Immunization. Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies. Production of Polyclonal Antisera. Characterization and Isotyping of Immunoglobulins. Monoclonal Antibodies. Hybridoma Generation. Cloning Selection and Production of Monoclonal Antibodies. Purification, Characterization, Sensitivity and Specificity of Monoclonal Antibodies. Immunoassays. Agglutination. Precipitation. Immunoelectrophoresis. Radioimmunoassay, Immunofluorescene, Immunoblotting. ELISA. Applications of Cellular Immunology. Immunocompetent Cells and their Markers Separation and Purification of Immunocompetent Cells. Immunohistrochemistry and Immunohistopathology. Applications of Immunodiagnostic Techniques in Infectious Diseases. Viral, Bacterial, Protozoa, Helminthes and Fungal Infection. Vaccine. Principles and Strategies of Vaccine Development. Immunity Against Parasites and pathogens. Haemocytes and Immune Proteins. Development, Characterization and Applications of Immune Proteins.[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Bioinformatics” tab_id=”1457511462198-e209967a-2dc9″][vc_column_text]Essential Basics: Computers and the Internet, HTML, CGI & Web Services, Operating Systems and UNIX,. Relational Databases, Perl and Other Programming Languages. Introduction to Bioinformatics: NCBI Entrez, The BLAST Algorithm, Using BLAST Online, ORF Finder, GENSCAN, Principles and use of PSI-BLAST, Multiple Sequence Alignments with ClustalW, Protein analysis (Prosite, Pfam, PRINTS, Blocks). Introduction to Structural bioinformatics: The Protein Data Bank. Visualization w/Rasmol and Chime, Secondary Structure Calculation (Kabsch/Sander), Structure Classification (SCOP and CATH), Structure Determination, Basic Geometry, Structure/Function Assignment, Structure Alignment, Structure Prediction, Protein Folding, Protein/Ligand Docking, Molecular Dynamics.

Recommended reading material

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Tools And Techniques Of Genetic Engineering” tab_id=”1457511467455-3253bd7f-c93c”][vc_column_text]Introduction to Advanced Molecular Biology, Enzymes used in rDNA Technology, Isolation of DNA, General Purpose Cloning Vectors, Gene Cloning and Selection of Recombinant Clones, Gene Libraries, Gene Expression Systems, Understanding Gene Function Through Gene Inactivation, Rational for Genetic Engineering, Genomics and Proteomics. Molecular Breeding. Mapping. Gene Function. Methods of Genetic Transformation. Vectors. Gene Integration, Review of Currently Available GM Crops. Gene Sequencing. Transgenic Plants and Animals. Gene Therapy, Cancer Gene Therapy. DNA Finger Printing or DNA Profiling: Methods and Applications of DNA Profiling. Genomic Libraries. Solutions of Disputes: Parentage, Identity of Criminals, etc. DNA Sequencing. REFLP as a Diagnostic Tool.

Practicals

Recommended reading material

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Biosafety, Ethics And Regulatory Affairs” tab_id=”1457511573936-aa61171c-f683″][vc_column_text]Ethics and Bioethics, Ethical and Legal Issues Surrounding GM Foods. Regulatory Issues. Human Dignity and Human Rights. Autonomy and Individual’s Responsibility. Principles of Consent in Different Interventions, Research and Teaching. Privacy and Confidentiality. Sharing of Benefits. Protecting Future Generations. Protection of the Environment, the Biosphere and Biodiversity. Bioethics of Environmental Issues. Enthropocentric, Biocentric and Ecocentric Ethical Perspectives. Need for Biosafety Guidelines/Regulations. Guidelines for Laboratory Work. Guidelines for Field Work. Genetically Modified Microorganisms, Plants and Animals. Regulation and Containment During Field Tests. Compositions and Functions of Various Biosafety Committees. Movement of Regulated Material. Format of Project Proposals to Undertake Field Trails. Proposals for the Release of Microorganisms. Plants, with Microorganisms Living in or on Animals. Microorganism as Live Vaccines.

Recommended reading material

.[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Introduction To Plant Biotechnology” tab_id=”1457511615295-e7571dd5-5d8f”][vc_column_text]Historical Background. Plant Life and Local Flora. Special Problems in Plant Biology. Economic Importance: Plants and civilization. Requirements for in-virto Cultures. Tissue Culture Laboratory: Nutrients, Media Composition and Preparation. Maintenance of Aseptic Environment. Types of Cultures: Tissue Culture, Protoplast Culture. Application of Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cultures. Somaclonal Variation as A Breeding Tool. Commercial Applications. Plant Conservation Studies. Culture Banks, Cryopreservation. Ecology Laboratory. Plant Structure and Diversity. Cell Suspension and Secondary Metabolites. Molecular Basis of Plant growth and Metabolism.

Practicals

Recommended reading material

.[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Human Molecular Genetics” tab_id=”1457511646023-45833ea6-ee78″][vc_column_text]Human Genome Structure and Function. Chromosomes. Chromatin Structure. Genome Organization. Genetic and Physical Mapping. The Human Genome Project. Gene Regulation. Gene and mRNA Splicing. Control of Gene Expression. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Diseases, Diseased Gene Cloning, and the Genetics of Host Resistance. Pathogens, Genetic Diagnostics and Gene Therapy. Introduction to Developmental Genetics. Cancer Genetics. Immunogenetics. Neurogenetics. Population Genetics.

Practicals
Recommended reading material

[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Industrial And Environmental Biotechnology” tab_id=”1457511647888-f0c1476a-5c2c”][vc_column_text]Introduction to Bioremediation, Production of Fine Chemicals and Vaccines. Fermentation Technology, Downstream Processing in Biotechnology Industry. Genetic Manipulation. Bioprocesses and Enzyme Technology. Cell Culture Technology. Microbial Technology. Nutrition Technology and Business and Management of Biotechnology, Biological Waste Water Treatment, Microbial Bioprospecting and Population. Analysis. Detection and Genotyping of Microorganisms, Producers of Particular Metabolites and Assessment of Biodiversity. Extremophilic Organisms. Strategies for Life and Metabolic Adaptations of Cells to Extreme Conditions. Screening for Enzymes and Other Biologically Active Molecules. Application of Extremophilic Organisms. Microbial Interactions in Agriculture. Trophic Interactions, Plant- Microbe Interactions, Microbiological Control of Fungal Plant Pathogens and Important of Microorganisms for Soil Fertility. Plant-growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Secondary Metabolites with Antifungal Activities, Biosurfactans. Microbial Ecotoxicology and Environmental Quality. Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pollutants. Development of Co-resistance to Antibiotics in Polluted Environments. Bottlenecks for Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants. Aquaculture microbiology: Identification and biology of taste-and-odor producing bacteria in fish ponds and their impact on fish quality.

Practicals
Recommended reading material

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